Critical Success Factors for the insertion of Autonomous Vehicles as a Product Service System in a country

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


Gerpisa colloquium, Paris (2019)


1. Purpose

When facing several changes that will occur from the insertion of AVs as PSS, specially regarding a macro scenario, it is essential to consider aspects according to specificities. The optimal AV future may differ depending on countries’ patterns. However, there are basic standards that “will need to be put in place across countries and potentially entire continents” (KPMG, 2018, p.7). In this sense, to become a successful innovation, key aspects related to AVs must be considered, such as business, social, and legal system (KPMG, 2018; Sawhney, Wolcott & Arroniz, 2006). Considering a country as a specific type of organization, we understand that the first step to design innovations associated with new models and business for AVs as a PSS is to consider what are the main features and aspects of this vehicle in order to promote the insertion and adoption in a country and also the shift to unexplored markets. Thus, the general objective of this paper is to identify the critical success factors and propose a theoretical model of the innovation radar for the insertion of autonomous vehicles as a Product-Service System in a country.

2. Research design

This study adopted research design was characterized as empirical, quantitative-qualitative of exploratory-descriptive nature. In terms of nature of the research, first, via a systematic literature review, it was possible to map the main CSF for a country found in the literature (descriptive), next, we used questionnaires as qualitative anchors to filter key CSF that could be used in AVs’ scope and context. Next, we performed a focus group in order to validate the categories previously established and design a theoretical framework for the innovation radar in the context of AVs as a PSS.

3. Main findings

As outputs of this research, we have the proposition of a theoretical framework that allows the mapping of the innovative capacity of a country. The Innovation Radar highlights twelve Critical Success Factors for the insertion of AVs in a given country and explore the relation among each other. The framework presents four key dimensions that work like anchors, and among these four anchors, we imbedded twelve factors of the innovation system that can serve as avenues of pursuit: i) Technology and Innovation: related to Technological Capability, IT Standards (Hardware and Software), and Data Management and Security; ii) Social and Political Environment: related to Law & Liability, Public Policies, and Ethics & Moral; iii) Consumer and Market: composed for consumer behavior, macroeconomic environment and stakeholders’ relationships and, iv) Infrastructure and Patterns: composed by factors related to roads infrastructure, cities infrastructure, and mobility and transport. The framework is represented in Figure 01:

Figure 1: Innovation radar for the Insertion of AVs as a PSS in a country

Source: Elaborated by the authors

4. Practical implications

We sought to fill a gap in the literature, related to the definition, adequacy and application of an artifact to support the insertion and management of a disruptive innovation in a country. Finally, there is a proposal for methodological advancement, associated to critical success factors, with an empirical approach and easy adaptation and application around the world. A radar framework identifies CSFs to be used in order to contribute to processes related to innovative capacity, governance and market reach efficiency and effectiveness in the current and real context of the countries.

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