Mobility and Space Utilization: Regulations Concerning Transportation in Urban Development Plans

Publication Type:

Conference Paper

Authors:

Ai NISHIMURA

Source:

Gerpisa colloquium, Paris (2019)

Keywords:

environmental issues, Mobility services, Sustainable urban space

Abstract:

(1) Background /Purpose
This research aims to explore recent trends in transformation of land use and its future prospects based on the analysis on new mobility services and efforts toward sustainable transportation and urban space that have developed against the background of environmental problems. In response to environmental problems, urban policy has aimed to create sustainable urban space and to promote the use of eco-friendly modes of transportation. The development of environmentally friendly technology and the provision of urban services are becoming more diversified. The recent emergence of new mobility services such as car sharing, which is a current trend based on a conscious switch from individual car use to shared car use, also tends to bring on the transformation of urban space (such as unused parking lots) for new uses that may result in more-attractive cities. Based on these trends, this research focused on the transition of urban space utilization in France, which has policies to promote the use of eco-friendly transportation modes and to create sustainable urban environments. This study reviewed recent changes in urban planning systems, included the analysis of selected urban-district projects and the institutional structures that enable the achievement of policy goals, and explored ongoing changes in land use.

(2)Methods
This research focused on the institutional transformation of urban planning system and its orientation for creating sustainable urban space and some case study of sustainable urban projects in France. Especially it focuses on the sustainable urban districts from suburban areas, “Bords de Seine’ in the Issy-les Moulineaux, and some ecoquartier projects in metropolitan area and local area. This research was proceeded by the document reviews, interviews to urban project players and site researches.

(3) Results
This research found that the institutional integration of transportation and urban planning system enables promotion of the use of environmentally friendly transportation modes in urban district projects. For example, regulations on transportation modes in urban planning have a tendency to decrease the installation ratio of parking lots while increasing such public spaces as sidewalks, bicycle paths, and parks. In addition, such urban development projects tend to be monitored by the sustainable district evaluation system, which assesses the value of the space.
From the case of Issy-les Moulineaux city, regional urban planning directs that a public-transportation network is to be set up and that it is to have a traffic policy that embraces environmentally friendly means of transportation. Specifically, it aims to promote alternative mobility modes by developing public transportation networks, sidewalks, and bicycle-road networks, and this policy is linked with the urban plan and transport plan in the wider region. Furthermore, in the case of the sustainable district project (Bords de Seine), the number of parking lots for vehicles was decreased from the conventional level on the basis of the regulations stipulated in the regional urban plan, while the parking lot for bicycles was increased. Also, in order to reduce individual vehicle usage and optimize parking space, street parking in the district was restricted for sole use by emergency vehicles. A parking facility shared by residents and visitors was constructed underground, and vehicle entrances and exits were restricted so that sidewalks could be used safely within the district. An effort to connect sidewalks to natural scenery was also part of the plan. As a result, the questionnaires filled out by residents in the district of Bords de Seine showed that for 36% of resident respondents, the frequency of vehicle use had decreased.
Thus, the goal of sustainable transportation in France has been planned such that it would be executed through district development. Furthermore, the trend in urban policy in recent years has been to require that district development ensure sustainability for the economy, environment, society, and governance. In recent times, planners of urban district development projects have been trying to adapt to sustainable district indicators that are shown in the evaluation system. Such trends in sustainable development are promoted not only in France but also in other countries worldwide that have similar urban evaluation systems.

(4)Conclusions
Among sustainable district evaluation systems in other counties, transportation is also an evaluation indicator for sustainable urban districts. Because of the focus on the use of environmentally friendly transportation modes, it is predicted that the move toward transformation of space utilization by converting structures such as parking lots to public space, bicycle paths, and parks will also progress as a global trend. Furthermore, if the institutional integration of urban policy and transportation policy that was seen in France also advances in other countries, this trend will be supported by land-use planning and regulation, which will further accelerate the trend in land-use changes.

Full Text:

Purpose
This research aims to explore recent trends in transformation of land use and its future prospects based on the analysis on new mobility services and efforts toward sustainable transportation and urban space that have developed against the background of environmental problems. In response to environmental problems, urban policy has aimed to create sustainable urban space and to promote the use of eco-friendly modes of transportation. The development of environmentally friendly technology and the provision of urban services are becoming more diversified. The recent emergence of new mobility services such as car sharing, which is a current trend based on a conscious switch from individual car use to shared car use, also tends to bring on the transformation of urban space (such as unused parking lots) for new uses that may result in more-attractive cities. Based on these trends, this research focused on the transition of urban space utilization in France, which has policies to promote the use of eco-friendly transportation modes and to create sustainable urban environments. This study reviewed recent changes in urban planning systems, included the analysis of selected urban-district projects and the institutional structures that enable the achievement of policy goals, and explored ongoing changes in land use.

1.Background: Challenges in Japan
The sharing movement in transportation, as exemplified by car sharing, is spreading rapidly throughout the world. This movement replaces the traditional model of individual car ownership and use. It has attracted attention as a possible way to ameliorate environmental problems. Among other things, this movement has reduced the need for individuals to own a private car, and it is reducing the need for private parking lots, and it may be possible to reduce the numbers of parking spaces in housing developments.
In Japan, car sharing has been recently introduced to the public social housing areas, and this has resulted in the conversion of traditional parking lots into facilities space for use in community activities for the elderly. This shows that new developments in mobility can lead to changes in urban land use. Although the number of parking lots continue to be developed in Japan, the number of vehicles owned shows a flat trend since around 1993 and especially in provincial cities. As the centers of cities continue to decline economically, and local investment falls, the number of parking lots that are expected to provide stable income is increasing, whereas their occupancy rates are decreasing. Such lots are often scattered over a wide area and can divide a town, reducing the quality of its appearance. In Japan, the national government is reviewing the current institutional frame to better integrate parking lot policy and land-use policy.

2. Urban Transport Policy and the Urban Planning System in France
(1) Urban transport policy in France
Urban transport policy in France is founded on the idea of sustainable transport concept, with assurance of transportation rights and environmental response. In particular, the French Basic Act on Transport was revised in 1997, calling for a regional transport plan (Plan de déplacements urbains). In 2000, the SRU (Loi relative à la solidarité et au renouvellement urbains), which largely replaced the existing planning system for urban policy, was enacted, and as a result, transportation policy and urban planning systems were integrated. As a result, in regional urban planning (Plan local d'urbanisme intercommunal, PLUI) was formulated by regional administrative organization (Établissement public de coopération intercommunale), which involves both transport and housing policy in the same regional urban planning approach. The regulations defined in PLUIs include human and cargo traffic, traffic volume, and parking lot planning.

(2) Urban planning system in France
In recent years, urban policy in France has been promoting sustainable urban planning. In Article 1 of the urban code, the main purpose of urban policy is to balance among regions, develop regions sustainably, and to integrate of urban planning, transportation policy, and housing policy, as described above.
The urban code clearly states that the development of alternative transport that can be used to change cars to individual vehicles is made in urban policy. In this study, this law is examined with reference to a reduced scope, on the scale of actual city improvements and the way in which the code is implemented is investigated. In France, urban policy in recent years has been to promote sustainable urban planning.

3.Sustainable development of districts of France and its evaluation
The Ecoquartier Labeling System was created in France in 2008, and it is used to evaluate sustainable space improvements at the district level. It assesses an area for sustainability and promotes the development of that aspect, and its goals are expressed as 20 promises, consisting of economic, social, environmental, and governance fields. Transportation falls within the economic field, and one of its goals is to allow persons to secure means of transportation that can be alternatives to the individual ownership of the automobile. In other words, restrictions on car use, which are a main tool of transportation policy, are included in the evaluation targets for district improvements, implemented to achieve sustainable urban development. In this way, urban planning systems in France are structured to ensure that from philosophical policies to district-level land-use plans, there is a unified view that then appears as implementation measures.
Thus, the integration of city policy and traffic policy will appear in traffic and parking lot regulations as they are defined in urban land-use planning and implemented in district-improvement projects.
In this analysis, traffic-related policies and regulations are extracted from local government documents and organized. This analysis focuses on the overall goal of the regional city plan, the role of traffic policy in the plan, regulations on traffic, transport goals with reference to the Eco-quartier Labeling System, the means of achieving the goals, and the current state of maintenance needs.
From this analysis, traffic policy and its goals in town planning in France can be positioned, and changes in land-use status as seen in the implementation method can be evaluated with reference to the policy.

4. Transport regulations in regional city planning and parking lot policies in district projects

In this section, by considering specific cases, we analyze transport regulations and parking lot policies as found in documents for city planning in Issy-les-Moulineaux to review the specific maintenance mechanisms.
The city of Issy-les-Moulineaux is a suburb of Paris, and in recent years, it has been implementing a large-scale transportation policy together with the development of a new housing complex, following the Grand Paris plan.

(1) Transport policy in regional city planning for Issy-les-Moulineaux
The transportation policy of Issy-les-Moulineaux is described in Part 3 of the regional city plan, which describes the mobility and transportation networks, including regional trends and characteristics in transportation, including commuting and traveling within the region, and as a whole, improving public transportation networks and developing means of transportation that are more environmentally friendly.
In more detail, in the Sustainable Development and Maintenance Plan (Projet d'aménagement et de développement durable), which defines the specific plan for the maintenance of the space within the city area, the promotion of alternative uses and types of vehicles as implementation policy; optimizing public transportation by developing and improving traffic networks; improving pedestrian spaces and networks; providing pedestrians with continuous, functional, and enjoyable walkways; and maintaining a continuous, safe, and comfortable bicycle network to promote cycling as an alternative means of traffic in the area are given as the goals of the policy.
The area required to put the above-mentioned traffic policy goals and specific construction plans into practice is specified within the land-use plan for the use of public traffic; further, the anticipated maintenance of the sidewalks and detailed construction rules are given in the land-use plan.
For example, as it is based on the land-use plan, the construction of bicycle paths and parking spaces for bicycles are properly laid out in the plans for the residents' dwelling units to promote environmentally friendly modes of transportation, including bicycle use.
When collective housing is being constructed, dedicated bicycle parking spaces are calculated such that at least 0.5 m2 can be secured for each housing unit. In addition, spots for car parking are determined by the floor area and number of rooms for each dwelling unit, with a maximum of two places being assigned only where the floor area is 80 m2 or more or six rooms or more. The regulatory documents relating to the construction of individual buildings promote the development of environmentally friendly modes of transport. Furthermore, the rules are required to be consistent with multiple documents that cover a wider area, including surrounding areas, in addition to the target area for regional city planning. Below, we confirm the details of the provisions in the documents regarding the surrounding area.

(2) Relationship between the traffic policy for the regional city plan of Issy-les-Moulineaux and other plans
The framework of the transportation policy described in the planning document for regional development relates to other documents as follows.
First, in the Île-de-France traffic plan SDRIF (Schéma directeur de la Région Île-de-France), the transportation policy is defined as follows: Conduct large-scale development of public transportation and use of active motion to enable people to move daily; strengthen public transport networks, modernizing the existing railway networks in particular, optimizing the metro network, supporting the autonomous operation of the Grand Paris Express, and developing tramlines; and utilize information and communication networks to raise awareness of the progress of construction work.
Next, in the regional area plan (Schéma de cohérence territorial), the transportation policy is defined as follows: to improve the public transport networks, especially the expansion of Line 12 in Issy-le-Moulineaux, the implementation of the Grand Paris Express ring road project, the creation of a new bus line connecting the center of Issy-les-Moulineaux and the Markov Plato Station on Line 13, the construction of bicycle paths, and developing the main highways (RD 50 and RD 7); the city is required to share the parking lots, and a new railway station is to accommodate a variety of transportation services from the station to other destinations; minimum quantitative criteria for bicycle parking are to be incorporated into the regional city planning regulations, but these criteria are the same for all communes in the Île-de-France area; and finally, criteria for parking lots are also given as regulations in regional city planning.
In the regional plan for air and energy (Schéma régional climat air énergie), the transportation policy is defined as follows: promote the use of public transport and active modes of transit; prioritize public transport to promote public roads and maintenance of public spaces, with secure logistics; reduce travel needs and limit travel, using information and communication technology to support this move; create traffic plans for major areas with high traffic volumes; perform a modal shift in logistics, promoting the use of railways and rivers; optimize logistics networks; study and understand personal car use situation; and raise awareness within and outside of the country of the environmental impact of car traffic while providing alternative means of movement.
Next, plans must be devised to promote harmony between movement and logistics, even over the entire Greater Paris and the Western Seine (Grand Paris Seine Ouest) area. Bicycle parking spaces should be secured according to citizen's needs and developed cycling routes for leisure and daily uses. This forms part of a plan to strengthen urban transport alternatives to cars, reduce the modal share of private cars and disseminate information on alternative modes, achieve efficient community-based traffic networks at the community level, and ensure the accessibility of public spaces around railway stations.
Furthermore, regional urban planning should also be compatible with the purpose of the Joint Territorial Plan for Climate and Energy (Plan climat énergie territorial), which calls for raising awareness of eco-driving, developing bicycle routes, encouraging the purchase of electric vehicles and electric bicycles, and promoting car sharing among the residents and workers of Issy-les-Moulineaux.
Thus, the following points emerge as policy, once the details of the consistency of the city transportation policy of city and other related plans described in the regional transportation plan are organized: the development of hierarchical road networks and provision of excellent local services; the promotion of diverse and abundant public transport networks (including RER, Metro, tram, and bus); the creation of a distribution network to support the goal of reducing the share of cars and enhancing the attractiveness of the city; the support of the development of environmentally friendly networks, such as bicycle paths and attractive sidewalks; the improvement of the transportation system to reduce the role of automobiles in favor of environmentally friendly means of transportation; the construction of better connections between urban areas, taking into account travel priorities in the city; the consideration of transport networks to balance housing and employment; and the reduction of mobility needs to support and encourage economic activities.
That is, this is an urban policy such that the movement of consumers and their distribution in the city and in a wider area can be enabled in a way that reduces the overall load on the environment.

(3) Parking lot policy of sustainable district: Bords de Seine
The development of the Bords de Seine area of Issy-les-Moulineaux is being carried out as a strategic area improvement to increase population density. In this area, a project is being undertaken to use the site of an old waste treatment factory and regenerate it as a new residential space, utilizing the natural environment of the Seine riverbank. This area is being developed as a sustainable region that enables a greater multifunctionality of the city, including housing, commercial facilities, offices, schools, and nursery schools, and obtained Eco-quartier certification in 2016.
As noted above, because idea of the transport policy is to be reflected in improvements of space at the district level, how can the goal of sustainable transport policy be realized as the area develops? The relevant information was extracted and analyzed from the material on the Eco-quartier certification.
First, relative to sustainable development, the transport policy hinges on restrictions of the use of cars, which are currently the main mode of transportation, and construction of improvements to the existing public transportation facilities (RER C, the T2 tram line, and buses), and ensuring that environmentally friendly transportation networks (walkways and bicycle paths) that are connected to transportation networks are established. The spatial design of the district is intended to create an environmentally friendly network by taking advantage of the existing urban structure and the banks of the Seine to, for example, secure the south side space of the area as a dedicated site for pedestrians and cycling.
In creating transportation regulations, the parking regulation in PLU is used. When the PLU was established in 2005, the ratio was set as one parking spot for dwellings of less than three rooms, and bicycle parking spots were set to be at 0.5 m2 per dwelling unit, but this plan was revised in 2008. Now, the parking spot standard is one for all types of homes, and the area dedicated to bicycles has increased to 1.5 m2 per dwelling unit. Furthermore, to reduce the use of vehicles and optimize parking space, 158 shared parking spots are to be maintained underground so that the space can be used to meet the different needs of visitors to the district. The use that is specifically assumed for these shared parking lots includes visiting Saint Germain Island on the Seine, visiting public service facilities (schools and nursery schools), commuting, local resident use and use of their visitors, and visiting commercial facilities (such as a restaurant or a supermarket), among others. Car-sharing stations that could accommodate electric cars were also set up in shared parking lots.
At the same time, road surface parking is limited and is largely intended for those with reduced mobility, such as the elderly, and for commercial purposes (such as delivery) that can be completed in a limited amount of time. Additionally, because of the safety needs of users, nursery schools and schools are only built where traffic is restricted and only emergency vehicles are accessible. From these public service facilities, connection to the sidewalk to Saint Germain Island is guaranteed from the bank of the Seine as an environmentally friendly transportation network. In addition, the Hauts-de-Seine regional council, which deals with maintenance in the wider area, including Issy-les-Moulineaux, has implemented projects such as the Rive Gauche Valley project to reduce automobile traffic and promote environmentally friendly transport networks. In this project, two bicycle routes are being developed, and in the wide area planning, maintenance is being promoted to allow the road along the Seine River to be used as a promenade relative to urban development and distribution.

(4) Diverse initiatives to create a sustainable district
An analysis of efforts to create a broader sustainable area in the Bords de Seine region shows that as transport realizes the purpose of prioritizing comfortable travel and transportation without individual vehicles, the following multiple initiatives are being implemented: securing access to the area through public transport networks involving buses, trams, and suburban railways; installing rental bicycle service to connect with public transportation; installing bicycle parking for collective housing to promote bicycle use; constructing shared parking lots; and providing half of the public space to environmentally friendly transport modes, such as walking. In addition, schools, nursery schools, commercial facilities, and housing are all in close proximity such that travel distance can be reduced.
Furthermore, it is necessary to ensure sustainability of the sustainable area not only in terms of traffic but also in terms of the social, environmental, and governance aspects of the area, and certain measures are to be taken. For example, in the social aspect, to promote a variety of activities in the district, the following are being pursued: provision of housing adapted to the needs of the elderly; ensuring a certain percentage of social housing; and placement of schools, nursery schools, and commercial facilities on the ground floor.
In relation to the environmental aspect, to limit waste and promote recycling, it is intended to install high-pressure waste collection functions and to limit noise and waste gas by limiting waste collection and to recycle resources. In addition, the project maintains an easy-to-manage green space to help protect the natural environment and plant trees to support various inhabitants, such as birds and insects.
This type of sustainable space design and maintenance is considered an aspect of governance by many actors involved in district development.
For joint goals to be achieved in collaboration, a mechanism is required such that everyone in development can agree on policies for district improvement. In the same district, a document called the Sustainable Development Charter was prepared, and the concept of such a district and the method of realizing it were developed in detail based on that document. Examining the overall picture of district improvement in this way, it appears that traffic plays the role of a means to support it, with the goal of creating a sustainable district.
In this project, an ex-post evaluation of sustainability is conducted to determine whether the effort undertaken to achieve the goals of creating a sustainable district have been kept since first being developed and how behaviors have changed. The results of a questionnaire conducted by the local government among the residents of the area reports that 36% of respondents answering that their use had decreased on individual car use.

(5) Summary of the case of Issy-les-Moulineaux
First, the city's basic policy is to provide alternative measures to facilitate the conversion of reliance upon individual vehicles for mobility to other means. For realizing the transport policy, following measures were implemented : the construction of sidewalks and bicycle paths for short-distance travel, the construction and extension of public transport networks (such as railways and trams) over a wide area, enabling connections with other modes of transport in public areas, limiting the number of parking spaces relative to a given floor area, encouraging sharing parking spaces among residents and visitors, connecting ecofriendly paths with the natural environment, constructing nursery schools and school facilities in areas where car use is restricted, and incorporating all these elements into land-use planning and maintaining control of planned land use.
Thus, in France, the aim of the transportation plan is to incorporate traffic policy into land-use planning, thereby altering the means of transportation of consumers. In other words, land-use changes in France are not only a social phenomenon but are managed according to policy intentions in respect to various systems and planning systems that embody urban policies indicated in law.

5. Sustainable district development and transportation in France
(1) City of Bordeaux, Ginko district
Bordeaux has made great progress on traffic issues, through its urban policy. The Ginko area, the target of the first sustainable district project in Bordeaux, was developed to revitalize degraded social housing. Although the development entity is ultimately a private enterprise because the area is located away from the city center, the regional context of the wider area, including the maintenance of public transportation networks and the arrangement of public service facilities were considered. In cooperation with the local government, this project was implemented to balance environmental aspects, such as the connection with the natural landscape adjacent to the area, and the local social aspects, such as the provision of the urban functions necessary for the residents.
First, the tram was improved to secure access to the area through public transportation. Likewise, various other urban facilities and services were placed close to each other to move and minimize the movement distance of the citizens. Each major building was placed within 400 m of the others to allow walking or biking among school, nursery schools, and residences. In addition to facilitate access to public spaces and parks, more than six green spaces were placed in the area, and commercial facilities were located in the center.
In addition to promote bicycle use, short-term rental bicycle services were provided.
To promote environmentally friendly traffic modes, 50% of road space was reserved for sidewalks, bicycle paths, and trams. In general, all streets in the district were equipped with wide sidewalks (2–3.5 m free width) to support the movement of pedestrians, and the sidewalks were built to encourage human activity and circulation of the population. It also proved possible to eliminate car noise. A number of sidewalks can lead across the area. In addition, access to schools and nursery schools was incorporated into a transport network for use by the children, parents, and teachers who go to and from school in the district.
The parking policy was designed to consolidate all parking spaces used for the buildings within the district and to hide parking spaces in the center of the district. Furthermore, entrance into the district for vehicles is restricted, and it was determined that vehicles would not be allowed to move or park freely in the district. Each parking space belongs to a parking area shared by all residents, between those in collective housing and those in private housing, and all parking areas are covered with green roofs. This allows the sidewalks in the area to be safe and comfortable. In relation to the number of parking lots installed, to reduce the use of cars, regulations were put in place in PLU to limit the number of parking spots.
In this district, following the implementation of a restriction on the use of vehicles in 2008, the parking spaces for conventional private cars were reduced from 2009 onwards throughout the district. School buses, car sharing, and electric cars acquired dedicated spaces in their stead. Such spaces enjoy an area that is approximately equal to the number of bicycles available in public places (about 300 sections). In addition, in the same area, car-sharing stations were set up, in partnership with Private company which allowed a shift from personal car use to sharing. Electric car parking was installed by the tram station, and a self-service charging system was also introduced. Further, to conserve energy, a mechanism was devised to support not only the energy-efficient movement of people but also the delivery of goods and collection of waste. Thus, collection frequency was reduced by the installation of collection facilities with a compression function, and waste collection sites were installed at few points.
The district developer has explained that its actions have led to the financial support of the citizens', allowing them to avail themselves of the alternative measures of car use mentioned above. That is, previously, it was conventional for each household to own two private cars, but with the provision of other means of transportation, the economic burden of individual car ownership is reduced with the need for car ownership. The ultimate goal is to reduce car ownership in households from two to less than one. In this way, the provision of a variety of means of transportation other than vehicles in sustainable district development is becoming an appropriate, rational, and obligatory measure.

(2) Paris and the Clichy-Batignolles district
Paris is an advanced city whose environmental initiatives have been far ahead of the rest of the country, and the Eco-quartier system, implemented throughout the country, has adopted Paris's evaluation framework for the district and city levels. At present, 13 Eco-quartiers appear in Paris. We analyze the case of Clichy-Batignolles, in the 17th arrondissement of Paris.
The area was once the site of the Batignolles railway enclave, and the neighborhood was a devastated area that was home to social housing. Context from the background of the regional development policy for the 17 arrondissement, district project was carried out with the participation of various actors to ensure the regional functions required and preserve the surrounding natural landscape. The main body of development is implemented by a mixed economic company commissioned by the city of Paris, and the development concept was formed in consultation with many groups, including architects and ecologists, centered on the company mentioned above.

(3) Trends in sustainable district development in France
As of December 2018, 570 districts start to construct sustainable districts based on the eco-quartier certification system, and 68 districts have acquired eco-quartier certification. Six districts have conducted verification step after obtaining a certification.
In this way, as the regions of France develop, sustainable goals are often intended, including developing sustainable transportation. The transformation on land use such as reduction of the ratio parking spaces and the increase of sidewalks, bicycle paths, and public paces appears at the district project in each city. This trend was brought by the transformation of transport policy and changing of urban planning system and its regulations, likewise the connectivity between public transport and the other mobility services will be promoted as one of means to realize sustainable transport.

6. Positioning of transport in sustainable district evaluation systems in other countries
Above, we analyzed trends in sustainable transport and sustainable urban development in France using an example, and we explored trends in land-use transformation. In this way, it was determined that the integration of urban and transportation-planning systems and the utilization of sustainable district evaluation systems were used to embody policy principles in district-level development.
With reference to the second point, the construction of systems and improvements are underway in systems for sustainable district outside of France. For example, the environmental certification system in the United States called LEED-ND (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design for neighborhood development) has been designed largely as an indicator for the achievement of environmental sustainability of buildings, and it has also been developed as a method for achieving sustainability of district.
This trend is seen in the similar systems such as BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method) Communities in United Kingdom and CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency) for neighborhood in United Kingdom. In these systems, transport is one of important factors for realizing sustainable districts, these certification systems require the supply of environmental friendly transport means on sustainable districts. Recently these certification systems are applied for the cases in the world. If the utilization of this systems are promoted in the world, the supply of environmental friendly transport mode will be also promoted. Furthermore, if the institutional integration between transport plan and urban plan will be made in these countries, the phenomenon of transformation of land use that were seen in France may also accelerate in these countries.

7. Findings
This research has explored recent trends in transformation of land use and its future prospects based on the analysis on new mobility services and efforts toward sustainable transportation and urban space that have developed against the background of environmental problems.

The first part introduces a new phenomenon in Japan, the transformation of parking lots, which has been caused by the emergence of new mobility services such as car sharing. Also discussed are recent systemic challenges regarding parking-lot construction from the viewpoint of urban planning. For instance, one problem is that parking lots are scattered across town and are constructed by each building, thus, making the land otherwise useless, which in turn reduces in-town land values. Therefore, from the viewpoint of urban development, urban planning needs to adapt to the actual-use situation. Because parking lots are facilities that are normally part of a city, they should be constructed while taking into consideration, both, ways to optimize the location and ways to improve the quality so that their development will help reduce urban problems.
Part 2, based on the situation in Japan, shows how this research analyzed the actual efforts in France, where there has been work on integrating urban policies, including land-use planning and transportation policy. The transportation policy (including parking lots) aims to secure traffic rights for citizens while also addressing environmental protection. The integrated urban policy will support sustainable transportation options; for instance, by the reduction of automobile use, public transportation will be strengthened and use of sidewalks and bicycle roads will be promoted. The urban policy also aims to promote regional equality and sustainable development. Accordingly, the urban planning system, transportation planning, and housing planning were integrated, and transportation policy and regulations for its implementation were indicated in the urban planning. The transportation policy (including parking-lot improvement) has been structured to be carried out as an integral part of town planning.
Part 3 shows that the direction of urban policy in France in recent years has aimed at the formation of sustainable cities by considering the environment, the economy, and society and by supporting the evaluation system established to promote the urban development sustainability project. Among the evaluation indicators, offering sustainable transportation modes that do not depend on individual car use is clearly stated, and this element must be satisfied to advance sustainable district development.
Part 4 introduces the actual urban project analyzed in this research, the French city of Issy-les-Moulineaux, which was developed under the integrated planning system. Regional urban planning directs that a public-transportation network is to be set up and that it is to have a traffic policy that embraces environmentally friendly means of transportation. Specifically, it aims to promote alternative mobility modes by developing public transportation networks, sidewalks, and bicycle-road networks, and this policy is linked with the urban plan and transport plan in the wider region. Furthermore, in the case of the sustainable district project (Bords de Seine), the number of parking lots for vehicles was decreased from the conventional level on the basis of the regulations stipulated in the regional urban plan, while the parking lot for bicycles was increased. Also, in order to reduce individual vehicle usage and optimize parking space, street parking in the district was restricted for sole use by emergency vehicles. A parking facility shared by residents and visitors was constructed underground, and vehicle entrances and exits were restricted so that sidewalks could be used safely within the district. An effort to connect sidewalks to natural scenery was also part of the plan. Thus, the goal of sustainable transportation in France has been planned such that it would be executed through district development. Furthermore, the trend in urban policy in recent years has been to require that district development ensure sustainability for the economy, environment, society, and governance; transportation has had a key role in supporting sustainable districts.
Part 5 analyzes the manner in which transportation was planned in district development in France from the case of Bordeaux and Paris. The methods involved (1) ensuring access to the district from other districts (mainly by public transport such as tram, railway, and bus); (2) securing connections between the main public-transportation point and other means of transportation; (3) securing district-wide proximity improvements among such communal functions as commerce, parks, schools, and preschools; (4) securing the connectivity between tram stations and other mobility services such as rental-bicycle services and shared-electric-car services; and (5) constructing bicycle paths, restricting district-access points for cars, and constructing consolidated shared parking lots or underground structures. Sustainable district development using such sustainable means of transportation is now proceeding throughout France.
Part 6 shows that, in addition to France, sustainable district evaluation systems are being operated in the United States and in Japan and that they have also positioned transportation/mobility as an evaluation indicator. This supports the idea that sustainable means of transportation must be provided as part of urban development, and if integration of urban and transportation planning.

Conclusion
Among sustainable district evaluation systems in other counties, transportation is also an evaluation indicator for sustainable urban districts. Because of the focus on the use of environmentally friendly transportation modes, it is predicted that the move toward transformation of space utilization by converting structures such as parking lots to public space, bicycle paths, and parks will also progress as a global trend. Furthermore, if the institutional integration of urban policy and transportation policy that was seen in France also advances in other countries, this trend will be supported by land-use planning and regulation, which will further accelerate the trend in land-use changes.

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NISHIMURA Ai and SETA Fumihiko, 2017, Research on the method to realize eco-neighbourhood– From the analysis of French Eco quartier Label system and certificated example in Japan, Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan, Vol.52 No.3, Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan, pp.393-398
Ville d’Issy-les-Moulineaux, 2016, Consultation quartier des Bords de Seine,
Ville d’Issy-les-Moulineaux, http://www.issy.com/bords-de-seine
Ville d’Issy-les-Moulineaux, https://www.issy.com/PLU
Interview to Citallios, March 2019, Interview to City of Issy-les Moulineaux, March 2018

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