Developing a classification of business models for EV charging – A systematic literature review and roadmaps for future research

Type de publication:

Conference Paper


Gerpisa colloquium (2024)


Climate change and the associated legal regulations regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas
emissions are increasingly forcing car manufacturers to realize new drive technologies (Dulcich
et al., 2022). Battery-electric drive systems appear to be the most attractive way for private
transport to drastically reduce emissions and they are therefore also being promoted by
politicians (Reinhardt et al., 2019). However, the ramp-up of electromobility is accompanied
by a number of challenges. Customers continue to have concerns about the higher purchase
costs, the limited range, and the longer charging processes compared to a conventional
combustion engine (Srinivasa Raghavan and Tal, 2021). The expansion of the charging
infrastructure is the key to the acceptance of electromobility (Greene et al., 2020), but there is
currently a lack of profitable business models (Kumar et al., 2021) and a systematic
consideration of business models for charging infrastructure (Adrian et al., 2021). This leads to
the following research question: How can business models for the electric charging of vehicles
be classified and what is important on the roadmap to future research?

For a systematic literature analysis on business models, it is first necessary to define the object
of investigation (business models and their components) as the term „business model“ is not
uniformly understood in the literature (Teece, 2018; Lanzolla and Markides, 2021). In this
article, business models are seen as a differentiation of competitive strategies. The combination
of the Rough Business Model (Amit and Zott, 2015) and the Business Model Canvas
(Osterwalder et al., 2010) results in a business model structure with five components (Proff,
2019): competitive advantage, value proposition, resource allocation, value architecture, profit
model with cost and revenue mechanisms.

The PRISMA guidelines (Moher et al., 2010) form the basis for the systematic analysis, with
which the literature is selected step by step according to its relevance to the research question.
Based on the selected literature, it can be deduced that business models for electric vehicle
charging have not been analyzed in detail so far and are not clearly defined. However, the results
of the PRISMA analysis help to classify business models for EV charging along three
components: value chain for electric charging, segments of the market for charging
infrastructure and charging strategies.

Based on this, representative, practice-oriented business models are exemplarily classified in
the developed system and existing research gaps and challenges for the establishment of the
charging infrastructure are identified. From this, the categorization of the business models for
charging infrastructure into the various areas is reviewed on the one hand and the problems of
the business models are identified on the other.

This article is of great relevance for theory and practice. In combination with the existing
business model definition, the classification serves as a standardised measure for the
comparability of business models for electric vehicle charging. It represents an important basis
for the further development of business models for various players in the charging infrastructure
ecosystem in order to close the existing research gaps and overcome the challenges of a
sustainable mobility transformation.

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