Barriers to the development of electromobility in the Czech Republic in comparison with the policy of supporting emission-free transport

Type de publication:

Conference Paper

Source:

Gerpisa colloquium, Brussels (2024)

Résumé:

Barriers to the development of electromobility in the Czech Republic in comparison with the policy of supporting emission-free transport

One of the tools for meeting the EU's climate goals is the replacement of the emission vehicle fleet at the level of individual national states through a smart system of support and the removal of barriers with a vehicle fleet with such a structure that will be dominated by mostly zero-emission vehicles. The replacement of the vehicle fleet must take place in parallel both at the level of companies and at the level of households. The research presented in the contribution was focused on the consumer market, and its main goal was to identify non-price barriers that prevent the general consumer population from more dynamically replacing the old vehicle fleet with low-emission or emission-free vehicles. However, the price barrier is also an important aspect, especially from the point of view of the relationship between the purchasing power of the population and the purchase price of an emission-free car. This fact becomes especially important in comparison with the absence of meaningful state support aimed at the non-company market. When examining the non-price barriers identified as part of the research investigation, even in this area, instruments or policies leading to their mitigation or elimination are not implemented by the state.
The research includes the following research questions:
What are the most significant non-price barriers to a faster/more dynamic development of electromobility?
What policies does the Czech Republic apply to meet climate goals in transition to emission-free mobility?
What is the level of compliance between applied policies and identified barriers?
To answer the research questions and achieve the research goals, a combination of methods is used, namely the method of questioning in the form of a questionnaire survey. A representative sample of 400 respondents was interviewed, the questionnaire was constructed by a combination of closed questions with a selection of predefined answers and open questions, which were mainly supplementary in nature to supplement the wider context. The sorting criteria were gender, age, level of education, income category, socio-economic status, type of residence. The use of sorting categories aims to find out whether there are differences in the perception of barriers and whether these differences are significant. The obtained data were processed using selected statistical methods. This was followed by an analysis of national policies to support the purchase of emission-free cars. In the case of the Czech Republic, this mainly concerns the non-payment of motorway tolls, the possibility of discounted parking, etc. More significant support is directed towards the purchase of the company's vehicle fleet. This is a contribution in the order of hundreds of thousands of crowns and support for the construction of charging stations. The next step was to find out the degree of compliance with identified significant barriers and existing national policies. The output is the discovery of a significant discrepancy in the setting and structure of national policies that are supposed to support the development of emission-free mobility, especially in relation to the consumer market.
The discovered facts reveal the most fundamental causes that prevent a more massive development of electromobility in the Czech Republic, especially from the point of view of ordinary consumers. Without effective support, which would lead to a reduction of the difference between the real purchasing power of the population and the average price level of emission-free vehicles in comparison with the average price level of cars with a conventional drive, it is impossible to assume an acceleration of the initially very low rate of change in the structure of the vehicle fleet in the Czech Republic. At the same time, other policies to support emission-free mobility, whether at the national or municipal level, are far from sufficient to mitigate or remove the identified non-price barriers. Finally, it is necessary to set up active cooperation between the private sector, the state, and municipalities, especially in building a sufficient level of charging station capacity. From the vehicle manufacturers' perspective, education-based communication is not at a level that would dispel some of the myths ingrained in the population.
At present, support to mitigate high acquisition costs is focused only on company fleets. The consumer market is completely excluded from this support. Partial support of the general population consists rather in marginals such as free parking in selected localities, remission of the highway toll. The research results can be a particular foundation for the formulation of national support for the development of emission-free mobility.

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