End-of-life electric vehicles batteries in Brazil: modelling ways after the first use

Type de publication:

Journal Article


International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, Inderscience Publishers, Volume 22, Number 3, p.305-323 (2022)




battery, Brazil, Economic gains, Economic values, Electric vehicle batteries, electric vehicles, Electronic Waste, employment, End of lives, Environmental risks, EOL, recycling, Secondary batteries, Simulation, System Dynamics, System theory


This study aims to estimate the volume of EOL batteries in Brazil in 2050 and identify the implications for waste management. To achieve the goal, we made use of system dynamics. The number of EOL batteries can reach 250, 000 units, representing environmental risks and loss of economic value due to improper disposal. Scenario 1, which represents a high recycling goal, demonstrates the possibility of recycling approximately 200, 000 units, which represents economic gains. Scenario 2 demonstrates the insertion of the second use practice, and by 2050, EOL batteries could store about 2 GW of energy. It is recognised that the development of different management routes can bring new business models, technology development, recycling techniques, and new areas in the labour market. Understanding the implications and the need for implementation of regulations provides stakeholders with the possibility to act towards efficient management of EOL batteries. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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