Les Actes du GERPISA no18

Graphiques et tableaux - Article 3


Figure 1 - The configurations of multinationalization

Principles of hierarchy Degree of hierarchical control
weak strong
world-wide internationalization multi-domestic company world-wide company
globalization multi-regional company trans-regional company

Figure 2 - The trajectory of Ford


Figure 3 - The configurations of the major automobile companies


APPENDIX 

Internationalization of the automobile producers

World production of passenger cars (only) in 1994

World sales of new passenger cars in 1994

Production 1994
(output in 1000s)
Geographic distribution of production Geographic distribution of sales
Producers North America Europe Japan Others North America Europe Japan Others
Ford 3 959 54,6% 37,1% 8,3% 53,3% 35,8% 0,2% 10,7%
Ford (& Mazda) 4 928 46,6% 29,8% 16,7% 7,0% 49,3% 32,3% 5,5% 12,9%
General Motors 5 486 59,7% 30,1% 10,2% 61,4% 28,4% 0,4% 9,8%
GM (& Isuzu) 5 537 59,1% 29,9% 0,9% 10,1% 60,8% 28,1% 0,5% 10,6%
Honda 1 561 38,9% 3,3% 54,1% 3,7% 53,2% 10,7% 23,0% 13,0%
Nissan 2 081 22,0% 9,8% 64,5% 3,7% 31,7% 18,3% 36,5% 13,5%
Toyota 3 836 12,7% 2,2% 72,2% 12,9% 21,4% 8,2% 36,9% 33,5%
V.A.G. 2 980 8,2% 71,8% 20,1% 9,3% 63,3% 1,2% 26,2%
Fiat 2 137 62,7% 37,3% 0,1% 60,2% 0,2% 39,6%
Renault 1 613 86,5% 13,5% 0,0% 81,0% 0,1% 18,9%
PSA Peugeot-Citroën 1 798 98,5% 1,5% 0,0% 84,9% 0,3% 14,7%
BMW-Rover 1 027 (*) 97,8% 2,2% 8,7% 75,6% 2,9% 12,8%
Mercedes 599 (*) 97,5% 2,5% 12,9% 69,9% 5,6% 11,6%

(*) New plants have been opened in North America since 1994

Sources : Comité des Constructeurs Français d'Automobile, Automotive News

Geographic areas

North America: United States, Canada, Mexico (NAFTA)
Europe: European Union
Others: All countries except North America, European Union and Japan

Automobile producers
Ford: Ford, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Autolatina (Ford), AutoAlliance (Ford)
Ford & Mazda: Ford + Mazda (Ford held 25%), AutoAlliance Mazda)
GM: General Morors., Saab, Lotus, NUMMI (Geo)
GM & Isuzu: GM + Isuzu (controled by GM, 35%)
Toyota: Toyota, NUMMI Toyota)
VAG: Audi, Seat, Volkswagen, Skoda, Autolatina (V.W.)
Fiat: Alfa, Ferrari, Fiat, Innocenti, Lancia, Maserati, Sevel (Fiat), Tofas
Renault: Renault, F.A.S.A., Oyak, Revoz, CIADEA (ex Renault-Argentina)
PSA: Peugeot, Citroën, Sevel (Peugeot or Citroën)
BMW-Rover: BMW, Rover

 


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